Vörðr, the Norse Warden Spirit

The Old Norse believed that the Vörðr was a warden spirit that followed them everywhere from their birth to their death. Vörðr, or in Old Norse vǫrðr (pl. varðir or verðir), means: “warden,” “watcher,” or “caretaker.” In Old Swedish, the word is varþer and in modern Swedish it is vård. The English word ‘”wraith” derived from the Norse word vǫrðr, while “ward” and “warden” are cognates. The belief in them remained strong in Scandinavian folklore up until the last centuries. The vörðr is also believed to be the soul (hugr) of every person. <read: Hugr – The Nordic Concept of the…

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Practical Math Workbook, Grade 7

Practical Math Workbook Grade 7 by Spangenhelm Publishing The Practical Math Workbook, Grade 7 is a workbook in practical mathematics designed to help build and support the skills your middle-school student needs for math achievement and success. There are progressive lessons and exercises that will help strengthen and sharpen their basic math skills through increasingly difficult subject matter. Topics include: Addition; Subtraction; Multiplication; Division; Fractions; Decimals; Percentages; Simple Interest; Ratios and Proportions; Balancing the Books; Measurements and Measurement Conversions; Graphs and Charts. The workbook includes a complete answer key, a mid-test…

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How to Make a Viking Drinking Horn

How to Make a Viking Drinking Horn by Rowan Ingvaldsson So you have decided you want a drinking horn, and even better, you have decided to make your own. The gods smile upon you for your Self Reliance and Industriousness! Easy to follow step by step instructions on how to make your very own Viking drinking horn! From getting the horn, to coring it and cleaning it to lining and sealing. Everything you need to now from start to finish to make your own drinking horn. You can do this…

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The Maya: The Story of a People

The Maya The Story of a People by Njord Kane Definitively tracing the evolution of the Maya civilization from the arrival of migrating ‘first peoples’ to the end of the Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican World with the Spanish Conquest in the 16th century AD. A span of some thousands of years are concisely covered in one volume in a thorough study of the evolution of a complex Maya society. A new world of understanding about the ancient Maya civilization has opened up from new archaeological discoveries and studies. The mystery of ‘Maya…

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The Viking Stone Age

The Viking Stone Age Birth of the Ax Culture by Njord Kane The Story of the Vikings during the early Nordic Stone Age time period. The first ancient Norsemen. A span of some thousands of years concisely covering the evolution the Stone Age Norse people. A whole new world of understanding about the ancient Vikings has been opened up by new archaeological discoveries and studies. This was the birth of the Viking Battle Axe Culture, so well known during the Viking Age of Norse Expansionism. The evolving culture of the primitive…

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